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The Plantation Garden Archive

Numbers 351 to 400 of the pictures in our archive - in numerical order (That is, the order in which they were scanned)

   PGPT351 (left)
Date: 1850s
Source: History of the Norfolk and Norwich Horticultural Society (1929)

Henry Trevor joined the N & N HS in the 1850s even before he started to create the Plantation garden. The society was founded in 1829, and early objectives seem as much charitable as horticultural. Members wanted 'to raise the moral character of the poorer classes of the community' and by presenting small prizes (medals, or a spoon or 16 shillings) to encourage them 'to make the most of their small plots' and reap 'The Reward of Industry' - the vegetables and flowers shown in the vignette. In 1889 and 1892 the Heigham HS held shows in the  'charming and picturesque grounds' of the Plantation.

PGPT353 (right)
Date: 1850
Source: Encyclopedia of Gardening by J.C.Loudon.

This illustration of chrysanthemums is taken from J.C. Loudon's very popular book which Henry Trevor must have known. Henry Trevor exhibited and won prizes in the Chrysanthemum shows held by the N & N HS. The daughter of a Trevor Page director recalled the story that Henry Trevor 'would send his gardener to Japan to see the latest specimens. On one occasion he was gone for a long time and Mr trevor was concerned about him'.
  PGPT352
Removed
   PGPT354 and PGPT355
Date: 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer

Gunton Bros catalogue (see PGPT311) declares that the moulded bricks which are their speciality can be made in red and white, and here are examples from the walls of the Plantation garden. Both bricks have of course weathered: the red remains unmistakably brick, whereas after a time the white is often mistaken for stone.
   PGPT356 and PGPT357
Date: 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer

These are two of the six pedestals which punctuate the wall surrounding the fountain. They must date to 1857, when it was built (cf PGPT186). It is interesting to note that each of them is different, though each uses a window frame which matches a pattern in Gunton Bros 1903 catalogue (PGPT300). The central motif for each can also be matched - to chimneys in the 1907 catalogue, no. 17 (on left), which cost £2 17s 6d for a whole chimney, and no.16 (on right), which cost £3. The 'background' has been filled in with pebble flints.

The overall design of these pedestals is very similar to the pedestals in front of the houses in Chester Place (cf PGPT008), which Henry Trevor built in 1867, employing Edward Boardman (cf PGPT375) as architect. We know that Henry Trevor employed him also for the Palm House in 1871: did Boardman therefore create the design for the fountain pedestals at this early stage of his career, or did Henry Trevor ask him to copy for Chester Place a design invented by somebody else?
PGPT358
Date: 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer

Another view of the plaque described in PGPT111



   PGPT359 and PGPT360
Date: 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer Bruce Adam

These photographs are of the chimneys at Oxburgh Hall. They were installed in the 1830s, when the hall was modernised - for comfort, but in the medieval style (cf PGPT325/6). The chimneys were supplied by Gunton Bros (cf PGPT311) and the one on the left matches design no. 13, which cost £2 17s 6d for a whole chimney. The other designs had apparently been discontinued by the 1907 catalogue.
PGPT361
Date: 1990s
Source: as PGPT341

There can be no doubt that Henry Trevor was not alone in Norwich in his taste for building 'medieval' ruins as follies in his garden. Here are 3 examples which have survived from other Norwich gardens: in Heigham Rd (top), Albemarle Rd (bottom) and Kett's Castle villa. Only the Kett's Castle construction is still situated within its original garden. A further example can be found, sited incongruously in the midst of a new development, in Purtingay Close.
PGPT362
Date: 1930s
Source: photograph donated by George Plunkett to dissertation listed in PGPT341

George Plunkett, with great foresight, took many photographs of Norwich in the 1930s, of buildings which were destined to be destroyed in World War II. This was one. Although it looks like a standard church tower, it was actually a belvedere or garden folly in the same tradition as those smaller ones in PGPT361. See a further description in PGPT363.

It stood in the grounds of Heigham Grove House (cf PGPT363), next door to The Grove, Joseph Gray's house (cf PGPT364/5). The tower was made of brick, as can just be made out in the photograph. A war time neighbour remembered that when a bomb demolished the house and tower on 27th June, 1942, his own nearby family house was covered in red dust.
PGPT363
Date:1924
Source: Sale Particulars of the sale of Heigham Grove House in 1924

The northern part of the large gardens, described in the particulars as 'Plantations with winding walks', is the only area which still exists as open space alongside the Earlham road; all the rest has been built over by blocks of flats. The tower (cf PGPT362) is marked on the east wall,  and is described in the particulars as 'Ivy mantled clock tower with striking clock, stained glass panels and staircase to top'.

This plan shows a very similar arrangement to the 1883 O.S. map.We know that when Chas Winter, boot and shoe manufacturer, was the owner in the mid 19c, horticultural shows were held in his grounds. The estate was sold in 1924 for £2725. In 1925 the City Council bought it for £3200 and converted it into the City Maternity Home.
PGPT364
Date: 1915
Source: family photograph of the Bullard family, donated by Mrs Rintoul nee Bullard, of Edinburgh

Molly Bullard, the child in the photograph, spent her early years at The Grove, Heigham Grove, and her memories of the house and garden were still vivid when she described them in the 1990s. 

This house and garden inevitably influenced Henry Trevor's ideas for his own property. Joseph Gray, his boss and father-in-law (cf PGPT158), had bought The  Grove in 1831. So when, in 1855, Henry Trevor decided to lease the Plantation, just along the road from Joseph Gray's house, he was already familiar with a style of gardening that used 'antique' decorations to add interest to garden walls. In this photograph, both a 'medieval' shield and helmet and a 'Roman' bust in a niche are clearly visible. Molly also remembered a 'ruin' in the garden, which in her day was used as part of a chicken run! (cf PGPT364)
PGPT365
Date: 1930s
Source: as PGPT364

This photograph shows Molly Rintoul's future husband standing in the garden at The Grove, with a 'Roman' bust decorating the wall in the background (see PGPT364). How can we be sure that these busts were there in the 19th century? Not only does their style imply this date, but we have the evidence of Joseph's Gray's will (1862) in which he bequeaths to his wife various items in his garden, including 'chairs...busts vases...'


PGPT366
Date: 1856
Source: 1990s photograph by volunteer

See PGPT067 for the history of Henry Trevor building the Plantation house. He put the date plaque (probably made by Gunton Bros) on a chimney stack, the left hand one in PGPT067.

The chimney pot on the left is the most likely to be original, as its style matches others of around this date e.g. in Chester Place.




PGPT367
Date: 1992 reproduction of 1857 date plaque
Source: photograph by volunteer

This pedestal from the wall surrounding the fountain basin has yet another window frame by Gunton Bros, different from those in PGPT356 and 357. See PGPT186 for information about the reproduction date plaque.






PGPT368
Date: 2003

This retaining wall in the south-east corner of the lower lawn had largely collapsed by 1980, when the garden was 'discovered' (cf PGPT252). Restoration was begun here in 2003, by Michael Herring (PGPT253), a builder who had done a lot of work on traditional buildings.The lower parts of this wall were still in situ, so the plan was clear, and for materials he had plenty of the original bricks and flints which he bound with an old-fashioned mortar, using a natural lime mix to give an authentic look. As for the design, as he said himself, 'the best guide is the other walls, with their mixture of flints and plain and fancy bricks, so I've imitated the 19th century craftsmen.' He 'worked out a pattern, and then had a consultation with Bruce and Sheila Adam......we kept trying out different ideas until we got there.' (Ex Fonte no 23 2003)
PGPT369
Date: 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer

The left hand pillar from the propagating house (see History and Guide 2009 p 33). The propagating house can just be seen beyond the fountain in PGPT001, though already in 1897 the pillars were covered with ivy.
The pillars were decorated with various Gunton Bros fancy bricks(PGPT311): rose, shamrock, thistle, grapes and small window frames were used.





PGPT370
Date: 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer

Rockworks became very popular in Victorian gardens, with manuals giving instructions about how to build them using limestone and clinker waste from furnaces or gasworks. A large piece of clinker can be seen at the top of the 'steps' here, down which water could trickle to be absorbed in the flower bed below (cf PGPT334).

In recent years ferns have been planted in the twenty or so planting holes built into the face of this long retaining wall (cf PGPT214).
PGPT371
Date: early 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This photograph shows the Plantation house still looking much as it did in 1897 (cf PGPT067) but the foreground is very different. The flint/brick shed, built in the 1980s, stands where once the gardener's cottage (cf PGPT034) and a fruit store stood. The relative positions of master's house and servant's cottage reflect the 'upstairs, downstairs' relationship between Henry Trevor and his gardener, George Woodhouse. In the 1897 auction particulars the cottage is described as 'well screened from the house' and indeed their different levels made that easy to achieve.

During the 1990s a wooden shed was erected next to the brick one and was fitted with units donated by Lorraine Matthews. It served as a base for catering for teas etc and for storage. A new enlarged shed is planned for summer 2013.
PGPT372
Date: 1990s
Source: photographs by volunteer Sheila Adam

These photographs show the entrance to the Plantation house, built by Henry Trevor in 1855/6. Although the house had been used for many purposes during the 20c, after Henry Trevor's death in 1897, these features - the octagonal light well and elegantly curved staircase - are certainly survivals of the original building.








 

PGPT373

Date: 1920s

Source: photograph from Green family album

The rustic bridge was an important feature of Henry Trevor's design for his garden. On PGPT344 it is marked with the number 4, and the colours of the map indicate how various circular walks around the garden were made possible by the link provided by this bridge. Henry Trevor must have delighted in using it also as a belvedere, for he could lead visitors from his front door on to the bridge to enjoy at once an overall view of his impressive garden. The appearance of this view in 1897 can be seen in PGPT001: PGPT080 shows it in 2005. Most visitors immediately reach for their cameras when they see it today!

The 'rustic' style was popular with Victorian gardeners (cf PGPT329), who liked to think that they were still in touch with the simple values of their pre-industrial ancestors. Henry Trevor's bridge may well have been supplied by Boulton & Paul (cf PGPT012).

 

PGPT374

Date: 1997

Source: drawing donated by W.A.E. Sewell, chartered architect

We know that the original rustic bridge survived until the 1940s, because one of our visitors remembered running over it as a boy - in spite of the stern warnings of his parents against this dangerous activity! In 1980, when the garden was 'discovered' and restoration began, the bridge had disappeared without trace. Evidence of its existence remained: a drawing of the site by Edward Boardman (cf PGPT375), the 1893 O.S. map (cf PGPT344) and the 1920s photograph PGPT373. For the story of its restoration see PGPT304 and 312.

PGPT375
Date: pre 1897
Source: photograph from 'Men Who Have Made Norwich', by E & W Burgess, 1904

Edward Boardman (1833 - 1910) was the leading Norwich architect, of the 19c, responsible for many landmark Norwich buidings - chapels, the Royal Hotel, hospitals etc.We know that  Henry Trevor

employed Boardman in several capacities - for work on his commercial premises, and as the architect for the terrace in Chester Place.Among Boardman's papers, a survey drawing  is preserved of the area where the Palmhouse was built in 1871. The drawing shows the position of the rustic bridge, and a winding path descending from the Plantation House to the fountain. This presents virtual proof that Boardman supervised the levelling of the area and erection of the Palmhouse in 1871. 

Was Boardman involved in the building of HT's house or the construction of the fountain?  Although he did not set up his office in Norwich until 1860, we know that he was involved before that in Suffolk at Somerleyton, so he did have an East Anglian connection in the 1850s. Henry Trevor's Plantation house shares some features with the houses in Chester Place, which Boardman certainly designed, while the pedestals around the PG fountain, which are of very unusual design, are almost identical to those in front of the Chester Place houses (cf PGPT356/7). So it is possible that Henry Trevor regularly consulted Boardman about the design of his garden.

PGPT376
Date: 1875
Source: 'From St Paul's to Unthank Road' by Harold Oxbury, 1925

This drawing is of a new Baptist church that was opened in July 1875 at the city end of Unthank Road on land backing on to the Plantation garden. Henry Trevor had been one of its supporters. Edward Boardman (see PGPT375) was the architect of this building in the Early English style. Unfortunately there was not enough money to complete the tower as he had designed. One of Henry Trevor's tenants in Chester Place, Rev T. Wheeler, was the first minister: another, W.H. Dakin, became superintendent of the Sunday School. The church was demolished by bombing in WWII.
PGPT377
Date:  11th Jan 1897
Source: document in the archive of the Preachers' Money Charity, NRO

This very angry letter, written by Henry Trevor in handwriting even more execrable than usual, was sent to the clerk of the 'Commissioners' of the Preachers' money Charity towards the end of a dispute over the 'Chester Place Corner'.

Henry Trevor owned freehold the roadway of Chester Place. In the late summer of 1896 he improved the junction of Chester Place and St Giles(now Earlham) Road by changing an acute angle into a rounded curve. In doing this he incorporated into his private road '2 square yards' of the Plantation estate which he leased from the Charity. The Commissioners objected that he had not asked permission and demanded that he should restore it. Henry Trevor wrote a stiff apology ('it never occurred to me'), pointing out that it was 'a great improvement', and that he had already spent 'enormous sums' on their estate. They replied rather haughtily that he should make a 'definite offer' of compensation. His answer came in this letter, when he thanks them for the 'hint'. 'If the Committee press for payment I cannot (or anyone else) put a value upon 2 square yards of land to make a public improvement. I shall however be ready to pay a fine of £5'. They accepted.
Henry Trevor died 5 months later.
PGPT378
Date: 1894
Source: copy of funeral card of Eliza Trevor, given by Mrs K. Barnard

The photograph of Eliza Trevor which appeared on this card is shown at PGPT162. The card was a typical Victorian production, setting out 'nearly her last words', a poem 'She always made home happy' which was found in her work-basket, and another religious poem by Whittier. She is described as the 'wife of John Trevor of Macclesfield and daughter of Henry and Mary Trevor of the Plantation Norwich'. She was married July 28th 1881 and died December 11th 1894.

In 'My Quest for God', John Trevor's (PGPT265) autobiography, he reveals what an unhappy year 1894 was for her. In June, their youngest son, a 'fine strong child', died after a few days' illness. She herself became ill and had to consult a specialist in Manchester, where she died in a hotel 'after a fortnight's severe illness.'
PGPT379
Date:1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This photograph  of the upper lawn and its retaining wall (compare PGPT053 12 years later) shows what a task lay ahead for the early volunteers. Both the east and west banks, and the terrace at the south end, were completely overgrown.

PGPT380
Date: 1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

Volunteers are shown working at the top of the Italian terrace, where the steep banks made the removal of saplings rather hazardous! The balustrades were restored later (see PGPT383).


PGPT381
Date:  1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This interesting cross-section through the wall of the fountain basin shows details of the construction that lies behind the flint facing.



PGPT382
Date:  1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

When the garden was rediscovered in 1980 the walls of the Italian terrace were thickly covered with ivy (cf PGPT319). This photograph shows how some of the ivy has been removed, thick and strong though it is. Most of the balustrades need to be restored (see PGPT383)
PGPT383
Date: 1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

Here we see the balustrades being restored by volunteers. These replacements were made of concrete, the originals were probably made by Guntons, who made a wide selection of balustrade designs. Charles Carus, on the right, architect, was the first chairman of the Plantation Garden Preservation Trust.

The lawn is partially prepared for re-seeding (see PGPT386) and smoke can be seen from one of the many bonfires to dispose of all the material being cleared all over the garden.

PGPT384
Date: 1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This view of the lawn looking  to the North shows that some work has been done to clear away saplings, but much remains to be done to restore a lawn. In the foreground are the supports for the nets which surrounded the lawn when it was used as a tennis court, from the early 20th c.
PGPT385
Date: 1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

A view of the lawn showing how rough it had become after years of neglect, and before the reseeding (see PGPT386) was undertaken.



PGPT386
Date: 1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This view seems to have been taken in the reverse direction from PGPT383.

There was much discussion about methods of re-seeding the lawn, and a decsion was made that the work should be done as far as possible in the same way as it would have been originally, by hand.
PGPT387
Date: 1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This view of the rockworks shows the central recess,with its inverted V decoration at the back, and large planting recess at the front. There are numerous planting 'holes' built in to the retaining wall, now planted with ferns (cf PGPT276), as they may well have been originally.
The 'steps' down which water trickled can be made out (cf PGPT, 370).
PGPT388
Date: 1980s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This photograph of the side of the steps which lead from the upper to lower lawn again illustrates how much work was undertaken by the early volunteers (cf PGPT043).


PGPT389
Date: 1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer

This photograph shows a section of the lowest part of the Italian terrace wall. The materials used are mostly flints and Gunton Bros fancy bricks: among the latter are parts of window frames, a piece of balustrade, chimney bricks etc. On the pedestal is a design which looks rather like a bishop's hat, just above a shamrock chimney brick. In the centre can be seen a brick moulded with the letter 'F'. Several date bricks are found in the garden, a letter brick is a rarity: however, there are 2 'F' bricks built in to this wall, and one is reminded that Henry's brother, Frederick Francis, died in 1860, and the wall was being built around this time.
PGPT390
Date:1990s
Source: photograph by volunteer


This is a detail of the ‘medieval’ wall (cf PGPT305). The date plaque here is very valuable for the information it gives about when the wall was built, i.e. in 1871 as part of the construction preparatory to the erection of the Palm House (cf PGPT003). No explanation has yet been found for the design of the main plaque, which apparently shows a barrel, leaves, fruit and flowers, as well as the letters ‘H’ and ‘A’ in a decorative ‘Gothic’ style. Similar plaques are to be found on the pedestals at the bottom of the steps leading down from the upper lawn (cfPGPT043/4). Was this another ‘bargain lot’ which Henry Trevor acquired from Gunton Bros? And is it another example of Henry Trevor’s humour, because the bar at the top of the ‘A’ ressembles a ‘T’? The circular design at the top is formed from Gunton chimney bricks.
PGPT391
Date: 2008
Source: photograph by Patrick Halpin

The first 'History and Guide', by Sheila Adam, with photographs by Sarah Cocke, was published in 1998. Ten years later, when the restoration had advanced considerably, it was time for a 2nd edition, and Patrick Halpin volunteered to take the additional photographs that were needed. This is one of the many attractive photographs that he took.





PGPT392
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

See PGPT391. This view shows especially clearly the use made of a variey of Gunton Bros fancy bricks, from window frames, chimney bricks and figurative decoration. Imaginative visitors like to think that the bearded face is that of Henry Trevor ( see PGPT106)




PGPT393
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

A detail from the fountain. Henry Trevor could not afford the lavish stone fountains which country house owners built, but he did his best to produce something interesting and stylish with economical materials!

PGPT394
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

See PGPT393. 'Henry Trevor' gets cleaned regularly! Under his chin we can see a row of Gunton 'spiral' chimney bricks, no 10 in the 1907 catalogue, £2 17s 6d for a whole chimney, 9 feet high.
PGPT395
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

The Norfolk reed roof of the reconstructed summerhouse has withstood weathering much better than the heather roof originally provided to copy the original (cf PGPT331/2).
PGPT396
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

At the south end of the rockworks stands the 'Gothic alcove' (PGPT103): at the north end another structure provided a balance, the 'Window' shown here (cf PGPT061). Henry Trevor was imitating the 'follies' seen in the gardens of grander houses by these decorative structures in the medieval style.
PGPT397
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

Henry Trevor probably built the propagating house quite early in the construction of his garden. In the 1897 auction particulars is this description: 'A span-roof Propagating House, 24ft., by 10ft., heated by a brick flue, brick walking way, and ventilators, range of five lights, and ornamental architectural dressings.' In other words, Henry Trevor disguised a utilitarian 19c building by screening it with a 'medieval' arcade with an ornamental pedestal at each end. The left hand pillar shown here was matched by the corresponding right hand pillar in PGPT398.
PGPT398
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

Here we can see the right hand pedestal of the propagating house (cf PGPT397) in its setting just north of the 'Window' folly and the rockworks. Indeed the 2 pedestals, and the 'architectural dressings' which stretched between them, formed part of the row of follies which Henry Trevor placed along the eastern path beside the main lawn. These follies provided the 'incidents' beloved of Victorian garden writers, planned so that the visitor's interest would be regularly stimulated as he strolled around the garden.
PGPT399
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

This photograph shows a detail of the 'Window' folly (see PGPT396). Henry Trevor no doubt hoped that this angel would create an impression of medieval stonework, but its freshness and general Victorian style prove that it was made by a 19c monumental mason, who would have kept a stock of such carvings for tombstones.
PGPT400
Date: 2008
Source: as PGPT391

This photograph shows the view from the terrace in front of the Plantation house down on to the upper lawn. This is not the view Henry Trevor would have seen, because from 1871 he saw the Palm House on this site (cf PGPT015).The octagonal shape of the Palm House and the rectangle of the Winter Garden (cf PGPT003) are now indicated clearly by herbaceous beds edged by bricks following the original edgings.
The auction particulars of 1897 have a full description of the Palm House: it was 'partly fitted with six rows, and partly with ten rows of iron hot water pipe, with patent steam valves, steam troughs, hot water propagating tank, large slate supply tanks, slate shelves, Doulton's edging, patent lever ventilators, doors 6ft 8in wide, and fitted with a fountain.'        
It was demolished early in the 20c, probably because the maintenance became too expensive, and a visitor remembered being told how horses and carts had to work for days to remove the debris.

 

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